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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



by 

The Birks Family Foundation 



WW/ 

M 



A K v 

Authentic Account 

O F T H E 

REDUCTION 

O F 

L0UISB017RG, 

In June and July 1758, 
Ob Patriam pugnando. — Vjrq. 

By a SPECTATOR. 




LONDON: 
Printed for W. Owen, near Temple-Bar. 1758. 
[ Price One Shilling. ] 



THE 

READER 

MAY depend on the Impartia- 
lity of thefe Minutes^ as the 
Writer, though prefent the whole 
Time, neither was himfelf an AEior in 
any Thing he relates, nor under any 
Influence from Dependance or Con- 
nexion with thofe that were. And, 
the Authenticity of the Whole may be 
as far relied on, as it is poffible to cre- 
dit the concurrent Accounts of feveral 
Gentlemen^ who were prefent at its 
different Parts, and related them regu- 
larly as they were tranfadted. 

Thefe 



( 4 ) 

Thefe Accounts were at firft col- i 
le&ed, only for the Satisfa&ion of; 
fome Friends ; and are now commu- 
nicated for the Information of the 
Public^ becaufe they have none that 
are better. It is hoped, they will 
contribute to give the Reader a juft 
Opinion of all thofe brave Men, who 
dire&ed and ajjijled in the Reduction of 
Louifbourg. — 

Quique fui Memores alios fecere merendo. 



( 5 ) 




MINUTES 

Concerning the Reduction of 

LOUISBOURG* 



T \i E Commanding Officers in the Expedition 
againft this important Fortrefs, were thefe 
that follow 5 

Of the Fleet. 

The Hon bIe Edward Bofcawen, Admiral of his Ma- 
jefty's Blue Squadron, and Commander in Chief 
of all his Majefty's Ships and VelTels employed, 
and to be employed, in North America. 

Sir Charles Hardy , Knt. Rear Admiral of the White* 

Philip Dm 'ell \ Efq-, Commodore. 

Of the Army. 
Major- General Jeffery AmhersJ, Commander in 
Chief of his Majefty's Forces to be employed 
in the Ifland of Cape Breton, &c. 
Brigadier-General Edward Whitmore. 
Brigadier- General Charles Laurence. 
Brigadier- General James Wolfe. 
Colonel Baftide, Chief Engineer. 

B The 



6 



The Redudtioft 



Namur 



The Fleet confifted of the following Ships. 

Guns. 

r Hon hh Edw. Bofcawen^ efq 
90 \ Captain Buckle. 



Royal William 

Princefs Amelia 

Dublin 
Terrible 

Northumberland 

Vanguard 

Orford 

Burford 

Somerfet 

Lancafter 

Devonfhire 

Bedford 

Captain 

Prince Frederick 
Pembroke 
Kingfton 
York 

Prince of Orange 

Defiance 

Nottingham 

Centurion 

Sutherland 



~ CSir Charles Hardy ^ Knt. 

^\ Captain Evans. 
g S Philip Dur ell, Efq*, 

0 I Captain Bray. 
74 Capt. Rodney 



74 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
66 

% 
64 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
6a 

54 
5<> 



Collins. 
Rt-Hon^Ld&Zw/. 
Swanton. 
Spry. 
Gambier. 
Hughes. 

Hon blc Gft?. Edgecumbe 

Gordon. 

Fozvke. 

Amherft* 

Man. 

Simcoe. 

Parry. 

Pigot. 

Fergufon. 
Baird. 
Marfhall. 
Mantell. 
Rous. 



Frigates. 

Juno, Diana, Boreas, Trent, Gramont, Shannon. 
Hind, Portmahon, Nightingale, Kennington, 
Squirrel, Beaver, Hunter, Scarborough, Hawke, 
./Etna, Lightening, Tyloe. 

The 



Of LOUISBOURG". 



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S[B.50dJOn| 5 



The Reduction 



On the 28th of May, 1758, Admiral Bofcawen 
failed from Halifax Harbour with the Squadron he 
brought from England, and the Tranfports with 
the Forces under his Convoy <, and on, 

June 2. Anchored them in Gabreufe Bay, in the 
Ifland of Cape Breton, above three Leagues by Sea 
from the Harbour of Louijbourg to the South Weft 
of it. 

In the Evening the General, with the Brigadier- 
Generals Laurence and Wolfe, reconnoitred the Shore 
as near as poflible, and made a Difpofition for land- 
ing in three Places. They obferved that the Enemy 
had a Chain of Pofls along the Shore from Cape 
Noir to Flat- Point, and Irregulars from thence to 
the Bottom of the Bay with Works and Batteries 
at all the Places where it was probable or practicable 
for any Troops to land. 

3. They difcovered feveral Encampments of the 
Enemy along the Shore of a little Bay, at the 
N. E. End of Gabreufe? which was the moft con^ 
venient Place for the intended Defcent : This Bay 
has fince been called Kennington Cove, from that 
Frigate's being ftationed there as clofely as fhe could 
venture to the Shore to play her Cannon upon the 
Enemy and their Batteries on the Day of landing 
the Troops. 

Brigadier General Whitmore arrived this Day 
from Halifax. As lefs Surf was obferved in one 
Cove than the others, a Difpofition was this Day 
made to land at that one Place, inftead of the three 
propofed yefterday. 

4. We had a thick Fog, and fo hard a Gale, 
that the Irent Frigate ftruck on a Rock, made 
repeated Signals of Diftrefs, and unfhiped her Rud- 
der ; but, with much Difficulty, was got off. The 
Tranfports were in great danger of driving on 

Shore, 



of Louisbourg. 9 

Shore, having fuffered a good deal in their Cables 
and Anchors, in the rocky part of the Bay, in 
which they rode at that time for the Conveniency 
of their Situation to the Shore, where the landing 
was propofed. 

June 5. Was a Day of thick Fog, with fo great 
a Surf driving on the Shore, that nothing could be 
attempted. 

6. After fome Rain and Fog in the Morning, it 
was judged proper on an Appearance of Change of 
Weather to make an Attempt of landing the Troops. 
Accordingly after the Signal made, the Boats they 
were debarked into, rowed towards the Shore: But, 
on the Report of fome Captains of the Fleet, who 
were ordered to reconnoitre the Beach, that the Surf 
was then too high, the Troops reimbarked in their 
refpective Tranfports, 

7. When the Fog cleared up, we found that the 
Surf was too high for the Troops to make any At- 
tempt of landing this day. 

But, in hopes of better Weather the next Morn- 
ing, a Regiment was fent, by the Mouth of the 
Harbour, in a Number of Sloops, with a Propor- 
tion of Artillery, to make a Shew of landing at 
Lorembec - 9 but not actually to land there till farther 
Orders, the General intending only to draw the 
Enemy's Attention that way, to facilitate his in- 
tended Landing at the N. E. end of Gabreufe Bay. 

Almoft every Day fince they had been at An- 
chor, fome of the Frigates fired at Parties of the 
Enemy they faw near the Shore, it was thought, 
with fome Effect. 

8. About 2 o ? Clock in the Morning the Troops 
were debarked into the Men of War and the Tran- 
fports Boats, rowed by their proper Crews ; the 
former under the Direction of a Lieutenant, Mate, 

or 



io The RedaBion 

Jme 8. or Midjhipman, and the latter under that of the 
Officer of the Troops in each Boat. The following 
is the Order of landings in three Divifions, given by 
the General, for preferring the greater Regularity: 



Otwc 


Hopi 


Laur 


Wart 


[Whit 


iv's 


b' 


ro 
n 


mp 


mo 




</>"* 


tb 


o 


ro 



Left Brigades Right t r £ 



1, 




CO 


er 


CO 




_o 


ckto 


ruth 


elles 


Forb 


CO 


Mon 


Anil 


Lafc 



Light Infantry 
and 
Frazier's 



To draw up to 
the left of A in- 
herit' s. 



To draw up to 
the right of the 
Royals 



Brag's 
Regiment, 



With* Directions to obferve, if poftible, the following Method 
of marching the Troops after their Landing ; 



& 


Webb's 


Monckt 


Frazie 


Grenadiers. 


ence's 


ruther's j 


elles's j 


ion's | 


CO 


CO 

' CO 

D 


ton 




o 


C/J* 




5— 




u 


a.. 

o 


rag 


brtl 






CO 








< 


—1 


X 


SB 





Light 
Infan- 
try & 
Frazr's 



Regiments of the Left tRegiments of the Right 
Brigade, Brigade, 



Amhft'sJ-Hopfon'sjLaur. jOtw's'Lafc.lMoncktl AnftrjRoyals 



Brag's 
Regi- 
ment. 



Regiments of the fecond 
Line 

Whitmore'sl Warburton't 



Regiments of the fecond 
Line, 



Webb's | Forbes's 



Previous to the landing, Capt. Rous in the 
Sutherland and feveral other Frigates, had, by the 
Admiral's Direction, ftationed themfelves as near 
the Shore as was convenient, to terrify and annoy 
the Enemy's fortified Encampments, the better 
to prepare for the Attempt of the Boats. 

Their Difpofition was — the Sutherland and Squir- 
rel on the Right near White Point; the Kennigton 
and Halifax Snow on the Left near Kennington Cove% 
and the Grammont, Diana and Shannon Frigates in 

the 



of LOUISBOURG, II 

the Centre. Accordingly, after Commodore Bur ell June 
had reported it as his Opinion, that the Troops 
might land on the Left, without any great Inter- 
ruption from this Morning's Surf, about Sun- rife 
this Day a mod furious cannonading was begun by 
the Kennington and Halifax Snow, which was con- 
tinued by ail the reft with only fome neceflary Inter- 
miflions in Favour of the Attempt, until about 
8 o'Clock. About 4 this Morning under Cover of 
the Ship's Guns, the Boats with a Bivifton of the 
Troops, after a general Rendezvous near White 
Point, made an Attempt of landing to the Left 
at Kennington Cove, with 600 Light Infantry, the 
whole Battalion of Highlanders, and 4 Companies of 
Grenadiers, under the Command of Brigadier Gene- 
ral Wolfe \ while a Feint of landing was made to the 
Right towards White Point, conducted by Brigadier 
General Whitmore 3 and the Brigades in the Centre 
were commanded by Brigadier General Laurence, 
who made a Shew of landing at the Frefh-Water 
Cove, the more to diffract the Enemy's Attention, 
and to divide their Force. 

The left Wing, finding the Shore at Kennington 
Cove impregnable, withdrew with fome Lofs from 
the warm Fire of two Batteries difcharging Grape 
and round Shot upon them in flank ; while feveral 
Swivels, and fmall Arms almoft without Number 
fhowered on them from the Lines, that were about 
15 feet above the Level of the Boats. As the 
Enemy had for fome Tears being preparing againft 
fuch a probable Attempt; they had now been 
fome Bays in Expectation of our Vifit : They had 
accordingly pofted themfelves along the Shore to 
the Number of more than 3000 Regulars, Irregu- 
lars, and a few of the native Indians, in all the pro- 
bable Places of landing, behind a very ftrong 

Breaft- 



12 



The Reduction 



8. Breaft-work, fortified at proper Diftances with feve- 
ral Pieces of Cannon, befides Swivels of an extra- 
ordinary Calibre, mounted on very ftrong perpen- 
dicular Stocks of Wood, driven deep into the 
Ground : They had alfo prepared for flanking, by 
erecting Redans mounted with Cannon in the molt 
advantageous Situations — Nothing of the Kind has 
perhaps been feen more complete than rhefe Forti- 
fications. Befides, all the Approaches to the Front- 
Lines were rendered fo extremely difficult by the 
Trees they had laid very thick together upon the 
Shore round all the Cove, with their Branches lying 
towards the Sea, for the Diftance of 20 in fome, 
and of 30 Yards in other places, between the Lines 
and the Water's Edge that, had our People not 
been expofed to fuch a Fire from the Enemy, the 
bare Attempt of poflefling thefe Lines, would have 
been like that of travelling towards them thro' a 
wild Foreft, from the interwoven Branches of one 
Tree to thofe of another with incredible Fatigue 
and endlefs Labour. 

Nor, was this Stratagem pofTible to be fufpedted 
at any great Diftance, as the Place had the Appea- 
rance of one continued Green of little fcattered 
Branches of Fir. And, but very few of the Guns 
on their Lines were to be diftinguifhed out of the 
Reach of their Metal ; the reft were artfully con- 
cealed from our View with Spruce- Branches, until 
the Boats advanced towards the Shore with the 
Refolution of forcing the Works — The latent De- 
ftruction was then unmafied, by the Removal of 
the Spruce-Branches, and the adventurous Spectators 
were foon convinced, thofe Works were not capable 
of being forced by Numbers much fuperior to 
theirs. The Enemy depended much'on their Strength 
here, which perhaps occafioned them to be fome- 

what 



Of LOUISEOURG. 

what premature in their Exertion of it : For, June 
before our Boats came near the Water's Edge, they 
began with great Alertnefs to play their Batteries, 
and to fire red hot Bails, befides a continual Dis- 
charge of their fmall Arms among them. The 
Conlequence had been much more fatal to our Peo- 
ple, few if any of whom would have efcaped, had 
the Enemy timed their Fire with more Judgment, 
by permitting the Boats to have actually landed 
their Men on that narrow fhoal Beach, taking no 
other Notice of them until they had been all in . 
their Power, than they had done before of the 
Fire from our Frigates, and of fome Boats that 
had been with Commodore JDurell to reconnoitre 
the Shore, before any of the Troops had put off 
from the Tranfports. 

Exafperated, not difcouraged, at this Repulfe 
from the Enemy's irrefiftible Fire, the Troops of 
that Wing drew off with all convenient Expedition 
towards the Centre, determined to rufh on Shore 
wherever they faw any Probability of Succefs, 
whatever Lofs they might fuftain. Soon after this, 
the Lieutenants Browne and Hopkins, with Enfign 
Grant and about 100 of the Light Infantry happily 
gained the Shore over almoit impracticable Rocks 
and Steeps to the Right of the Cove. Upon which, 
Brigadier Wolfe directed the Remainder of this 
Command to pufli on Shore as foon as poflible, and 

as well as they could which heightened their 

eager Impatience fo much, that the Light Infantry, 
Highlanders and Grenadiers intermixed, rufhed for- 
ward with impetuous Emulation, without Regard 
to any previous Orders, and piqued themfelves 
mightily which Boat could be moft dexterous and 
a&ive in getting firft on Shore. In this manner, 
C though 



14 The Reduction 

June 8. tnou §k a ^ ^ e while expofed to the Fire of a Bat- 
tery of three Guns, that fometimes raked, fome- 
times flanked their Boats very furioufly, and of 
fmall Arms within 20 Yards of them, they were 
all expeditioufly landed with little Lois, befides 
about 22 Grenadiers, who were unfortunately 
drowned, by having their Boats ftove in the bold 
Attempt* 

Among the foremoft of thefe Parties was Briga- 
dier Wolfe, who jumped out of his Boat into the 
Surf to get to the Shore, and was readily followed 
by Numbers of the Troops, amidft a moil obftinate 
Fire of the Enemy. Soon after landed Brigadier 
Laurence, and was followed by the reft of the Bri- 
gades with all poflible Expedition. After him in a 
little time Brigadier Wbitmore, and the Divifion of 
the right Wing, gained the Shore amidft a conti- 
nual Charge of Shot and Shells from the Enemy's 
Lines, feveral of the latter reaching alfo as far as 
the Brigades in the Centre. And, laft of all landed 
the Commander in Chief Major-General Amherfi in 
the Rear, full of the higheft Satisfaction from feeing 
the Resolution, Bravery and Succefs of the Troops 
in furmounting Difficulties and defpifing Bangers. 
A noble Specimen of the Spirit he had to depend 
on their exerting, in the Courfe of this Undertak- 
ing ; where they muft expect to encounter fo many 
of the one and of the other. In fhort, never per- 
haps might this Obfervation be more juftly applied 
to the heroic Bravery and Conduct of EngHJh Offi- 
cers and Soldiers, than on this remarkable Occa- 
fion — Regis ad Exemplum totus componitur Or bis. 

It would be an injurious Diminution of the Glory 
our landing Parties acquired in this hazardous En- 
terprize, not to remark particularly the Difficulties 
they had to furmount. — Such a boifterous Surf 

drove 



of LOUISBOURG. 1$ 

drove on moft Parts of the Shore at that time June 
ftove a great Number of their Boats, by which 
feveral of the Men were fo much hurt and bruifed, 
as to be very incapable of helping and taking Care of 
themfelves, and fome Others were crumed to pieces 
between the Boats and the Rocks. Moft, if not all 
of thofe who did land, were obliged to wade through 
the great Swell, themfelves and their Arms much 
wetted j and after that, to fcramble up fuch rugged 
Rocks, and almoft perpendicular Precipices as to the 
wary Enemy's Engineers feemed in need of no 
Fortification or Defence, their own fteep, rough 
Afcent having been judged beyond the Attempt of 
Men under Arms before thisglorious Morning. And, 
to complete the difcouraging Scene, they were all the 
while expofed to the utmoft Fury of the Enemy's 
Fire, and not in a Situation of exerting themfelves in 
any Kind of Defence, except by terrifying the afto- 
nilhed Foe with the refolute Bravery of gaining 
what had till now been thought an inacceflible 
Shore, and landing in the moil unexpected, one 
who had not the ftrongeft Proofs of the Fact might 
fay, incredible Places. But none, nor even all thefe 
Difcouragements were able to damp the truly Eng- 
lifh Spirit of our People in this brave Attempt — A 
national Spirit that our Soldiery are never known 
to want under the Conduct of fuch Commanders as 
fignalized themfelves here — a Spirit that will give 
both the Officers and Soldiers of this memorable Day 
an honourable Diftinction among Englifhmen, as 
long as Britifh Bravery mall be fuccefsful in the 
Defence of Britifh Liberty, 

The Spirit and Fortitude, which thus vilibly 
actuated all thefe Troops in this heroic Attempt, no 
lefs remarkably diftinguifhed their whole fuceced- 
ing Conduct ; which was but one continued Exer- 
C 2 tion 



1 6 " The ReduBion 

June 8. tl0n °f tne gfeateft Bravery. They inftantly at- 
tacked the next Battery to them in flank with fa 
much Vigour, as foon forced a numerous Body of 
the Enemy to abandon their ftrong Poft with great 
Precipitation. And, fo great was the Refolution 
they Ihewed in furrounding and attacking the Ene- 
my's extenfive Lines, that they had hardly given 
, there a Specimen of true Englijh Bravery, before 
they faw themfelves left Majters of the Shore with 
all its ftrong Works. The daftardly Panic that 
appeared to ilacken the Enemy's Tire as foon as 
they faw our Men landed pretty near them, now 
{hewed itfelf very confpicuoufly by its Effects, the 
little Refiftance they made when their Numbers are 
compared with ours, and the great Confufion with 
' which they fled every way before our Men into the 
contiguous Woods ; while feveral of them were 
killed in their Flight, and upwards of 70 taken 
Prifoners : Among thefe were two Captains of 
Grenadiers and two Lieutenants, who with the Men 
were immediately fent on board the Fleet. The 
French Officer that commanded here was, Lieute- 
nant Col. M. St. Julien. Our General Officers were 
all this time remarkably active : And, it would be 
an Injuftice to their Merits not to fay, that we owe 
this Succefs chiefly to their animating Prefence and 
' prudent Conduct. 

The Enemy's Flight was the more precipitate, 
from an Apprehenfion, tpat Brigadier IVhitmore, 
who had landed the Troops on the Right, would 
attempt to cut off their Retreat into the Garrifon of 
Louifljourg \ which nuift then have foon fallen into 
our Hands, as there were not, by their own Ac- 
counts fince, above 300 Men left in it that Morn- 
ing, the reft having been drawn to the Shore to 
pppofe our landing : For, they well knew, that 



Of LOUISBOURG I/ 

the Succefs of their Efforts there, was effectually j t 
to decide the Fate of Louisbourg; which is not 
tenable for any long time againft a numerous Army 
with a good Train of Artillery, affiftedand fupported 
by fuch a Fleet as we had fo near at hand. 

After this fignal Succefs, which exceeded our 
moft fanguine Expectations, the Troops were dif- 
pofed in fuch a manner, as at once to pofTefs the 
Shore, and to purfue the Enemy. The Party that 
remained at the Water fide, fecured the poflefTion 
of the Shore all the Way to Louijbourgh for feveral 
Miles in Length, and found in different Flaces 
abandoned by the flying Enemy, feveral Arms, a 
good Quantity of Frovifions and Ammunition, 1 7 
Pieces of Cannon, and 14 large Swivels-, a Fur- 
nace for red hot Bails, and two Mortars, one of 
Brafs of 8 Inches, and another of Iron of 10 
Inches Diameter, with a Shell in it ready to be 
fired — but its late Matters were in too much 
Hurry. Among the Slain was one Officer, and a 
native Indian Chief, a very flout, well made, and, 
as fome of our Troops can witnefs, a very active, 
intrepid Man, with a Medal of Diftinclion from 
the French King, hung round his Keck, which 
was prefented to Admiral Bofcawen. 

The other Party that was imployed in the Pur- 
fuit of the difperfed Enemy, under the Command 
of the Brigadiers Laurence and Wolfe, drove them 
over rocky Hills and boggy MorafTes for Security 
under the Cannon of Louisbourg, by ro o'Clock 
the fame Morning. The Furfuit concluded with 
the Difcharge of feveral Fieces of Cannon from the 
Ramparts of the Town towards our Troops ; which 
did them no Damage at all, and were of lingular 
Service, in pointing out to the General Officers the 
Biftance from the Town, where they could encamp 

with 



1 8 The Reduction 

g> with Security to inveft it. Soon after, the Garrifon 
'took the feafonable Precaution of fetting Fire to 
the Barracks at the Grand Battery which they had 
before difmantled and ruined ; and of deftroying 
all their Out-buildings in one general Conflagra- 
tion, which made a prodigious Blaze all that After- 
noon, and a great* Part of the Night ; and left 
nothing Handing within two Miles of the Town- 
Walls, but the Towers at the Grand Battery, and 
fome Chimneys and Gable Ends of their wretched 
Hovels. The Perfuers that very Afternoon, after 
reconnoitring the Ground, marked out the Camp, 
which our Army afterwards occupied during the 
whole Siege. 

The Pr if oners we made at landing faid, that the 
greateft Part of our Bufinefs was done, in the land- 
ing of our Troops which their Engineers had be- 
fore allured the Governor of Louifbourg, was im- 
poffible for almoft any Number of Men to do — and 
that none, but Madmen, would have attempted it, 
where the Englijh did. Our Light Infantry, High- 
landers and Rangers they termed the Englijh Sa- 
vages, perhaps in Contradiftinction to their own na- 
tive Indians, Canadians, &c. the true French Savages. 
Thefe Light Infantry were a Corps of 550 Vo- 
lunteers chofen as Markfmen out of the moft adUve 
refolute Men from all the Battalions of Regulars, 
drefTed fome in blue, fome in green Jackets and 
Drawers, for the eafier brufhing through the 
Woods with Ruffs of black Bear's Skin round their 
Necks, the Beard of their upper Lips, fome grown 
into V/hijkers, others not fo, but all well Jmutted* 
on that part \ with little round Hats like feveral of, 
our Seamen — Their Arms were a Fufil, Cartouch- 
Box of Balls and Flints, and a Powder horn flung 
over their Shoulders. The Rangers are a Body of 
2 Irregulars^ 



Of LoUISBOURGi ig 

Irregulars, who have a more cut- throat, favagejune 
Appearance; which carries in it fomething of natu- 
ral Savages: The Appearance of the Light Infan- 
try has in it more of artificial Savages. 

The Day of landing Sir Charles Hardy, with his 
Squadron, joined Mr. Bofcawen's in Gabreufe Bay % 
from his fevere Cruize on this Coaft ever fince the 
Beginning of April Some of his Ships had fuffered 
fo much in their Men, chiefly by the Scurvy, that 
they wanted A (lift a nee to bring them to an Anchor 
in the Bay — the greater Part of them recovered 
apace when put on Shore. 

In the Harbour of Louijbourg we faw five or 
fix large Ships of the Line, befides about as many 
Frigates that had efcaped the conftant Vigilance of 
Sir Charles's Squadron, fome in Snow-Storms, 
others in thick foggy Weather, fo well known to 
all that have cruized upon the Coaft at that Seafon 
of the Year. 

As your Ignorance of it may betray you, like 
many others of our Friends in the Country into the 
Abfurdity of fuppofing Sir Charles's Cruize there 
with his Squadron little more than as an Officer 
with a Party of Soldiers pofted on the Side of a 
Turn pike Road, in fight of the Gate, to watch 
a Party of the Enemy expected to pafs that 
way ; whom if he does not furprize, you will fay 
he has not done his Duty like a good Officer. 
Let me tell you, not only that the Coaft is 
extenfive, and that Winds and Currents would not 
always permit him to keep his Station — but even, 
when he could keep it, the Snow- Storms and Fogs 
often prevented our feeing any Objects at the 
Diflance of our Ship's Length. You will be eafier 

convinced of this, by an Inftance of each. 

The 



20 of LoUISBOURG. 

8. The 27th of dprilwasa. Day of fuch Rime and 
Storms of Snow, that we could not fee one of our 
own Squadron but once, towards the Evening. 
The Method of keeping Ships together on fuch 
Occafions, is either by lying-to, or by firing 
Fog-Guns every half hour that they make Sail. 
he Frudent and fome other French Men of War* 
having made the Land the Day before, ftole un- 
perceived along Shore to the Mouth of Louijbourg 
Harbour, with the greater!: Security, from having 
heard our Fog-Guns at a Diftance, as they have 
fince told us. Now, what Prudence or Vigilance 
could poflibly have prevented what, you fee, was 
out of the Power of both ? 

Let me add another Inftance to give you fome 
Idea of the Thicknefs of the Bank-Fogs on the 
Coaft of Cape-Breton — In the Night of the 5th of 
May we had fo fevere a Froft, that the next Morn- 
ing all our Rigging was cafed over with fuch a 
thick Ice, that it was not capable of being worked, 
. till the Ice was beaten off from the Ropes, which 
took up feveral hours of that Forenoon. That Ice 
was nothing elfe but congealed Fog, as we had no 
Rain or Snow the whole Night. Our Officers com- 
puted the Quantity of Ice beaten off from the 
Rigging of our Tingle Ship, between 6 and 8 Tun 
Weight. After this, you will not be furprized at 
my telling you, that we were for 16 Days together 
without Sight of Land, on Account of the Thick- 
nefs of the Fog, though we were every Day within 
a proper Diftance to fee it, had the Air been tolera- 
bly clear. On fuch a Coaft, what can the niceft 
Vigilance do, without fuch a Number of Ships as 
might form a Line of almoft equal Length to it? 

9. The Remainder of the Troops were debarked 
from the Tranfports, that could not conveniently 

be 



of LoUISBOURG. 21 

be landed the Day before, and were not judged im-j^ 9 . 
mediately neceffary to be fent for, from the extraor- 
dinary Succefs of the Parties who firft landed. The 
Sloops fent the 7th returned from Lorembec, with 
the Troops and Artillery. — There was a Lieutenant 
Colonel's Command polled in and round Kennington 
Cove, to guard the Shore againft the accidental In- 
curfions of the Savages from the adjacent Woods : 
Others of the Troops were ftationed at proper 
Diftances on fomewhat of a Road through the 
Woods, to keep the Communication open and 
uninterrupted between the Shore and the Ground 
that had the Day before been marked out for the 
Camp : The reft were imployed in clearing the 
Camp Ground. There were, befides feveral Out- 
Centinels, Parties of Light Infantry and Rangers 
ordered to patrole round the Rear of the Camp 
from the left Wing to the Back of the Poft at Ken- 
nington Cove, to prevent all Surprize andDifturbance 
from lurking Indians, Canadians that were expected, • 
or any fcattered Parties of the Enemy that might 
have been cut off from the Garrifon the Day before, 
or occafionally detached out of it afterwards. 

The great Surf this Day interrupted the landing 
the Baggage, &c. This Day fome Troops from 
France to the Number of 400 Men, part of the 
Regiment of Cambife got into the Garrifon, as 
we afterwards learned : They were landed at the 
Harbour of St. Anne in the N. E. part of the 
Ifland of Cape Breton out of 4 or 5 Men of War, 
who foon made the beft of their way off, but whi- 
ther, we could not be informed. Thefe, we were 
told, were the fame Ships that had been chafed 
towards the Shore laft Spring in the Bay of Bifcay 
by Sir Edward Hawke's Squadron. 



D 



10. Our 



22 



The Reduction 



'June. io. Our Troops were imployed in clearing the 
Camp Ground, pitching of Tents and carrying 
the Baggage, &c. that had been landed by the re- 
maining Boats of the Men of War and Tranfports. 
This Day the Surf was a great Interruption to the 
landing of Stores. There was, every Day that 
would permit, one of the Captains of the Line of 
Battle Ships ordered to infpedt and direft the land- 
ing of all the Stores and Artillery from the Tranf- 
ports neceflary for the Camp, and to attend this 
Duty until it was over, in a continued Rotation, ac- 
cording to their Seniority. The turbulent Surf almoft 
continually driving on the Shore, made this a very 
troublefome Employmentto the Direclors^ and very 
haraffing to the Seamen - % fwamped and Hove many 
of the Boats, and was fome Days fo great as to put 
it out of the Power of any Boats to get on Shore. 

This Afternoon Sir Charles Hardy , by Signal 
from the Admiral, flipped his Cable, failed from 
Gabreufe Bay with 7 or 8 Ships of the Line under 
his Command, and anchored off the Mouth of 
houijbourg Harbour; to prevent, if poflible, the 
French Squadron from getting out to Sea, when- 
ever they might be difpofed to improve the Op- 
portunity of a fair Wind in a dark Night or a 
Fog, to fave their Ships from falling into ourHands. 

11. Our Troops were employed as the Day be- 
fore, and began to make Roads in the Camp over 
Rocks and Morajfes, otherwife impaflable by Carri- 
ages, and hardly paffable by the Men without any 
Burden at all. This Day a Serjeant Major of 
Fife her 9 s Regiment of Volontairs Etr angers, with 
4 of the Men, deferted from the Garrifon, and 
gave us Intelligence, that their Number did not 
exceed 4000, and including the Inhabitants that 
bore Arms, not 5000 Men— that the greateft part 



of Louisroui^^^ 23 

of this Regiment were fo well difpofe to defert, 
that they only watched an Opportunity to quit a 
Place and Service they had been trepanned into, 
contrary to the Promifes made to them at their 
inlifting in the French Service — and that the J£nemy 
had deftroyed the Grand and Ligbt-houfe jBatteries, 
and called in all their Out- Polls. Some light 6 
pounders that were expected to follow the landing 
of the Troops, could not be got on Shore till now; 
when fome Artillery Stores were brought along with 
them. 

1 2. About 2 o'Clock in the Morning Major Scott 7***> 
marched with 500 Light Infantry and Rangers, 
taking a fatiguing Sweep through the Woods, to 
go to take PofTefiion of the Ligbt-houfe Battery ; 
and .about 5, was followed by Brigadier Wolfed with 
4 Companies of Grenadiers commanded by Lieute- 
nant-Col. Hale, and 1200 Men detached from the 
Line, They found this Battery deftroyed by the 
Enemy, and but 4 pieces of Cannon left, which they 
had fpiked up. A proper Quantity of Artillery, 
Tools, &c. was fent thither by Sea. The Situation 
of the Place was the mod advantageous that could 
be obtained, for annoying the lfland Battery , and 
the Ships, with our Shot and Shells. On the Sea- 
fide there was a little Cove, very convenient 
for landing Artillery and Stores for the Batteries to 
be erected here — befides two fmall Encampments 
deferted by the Enemy, with their Tents (landing, 
in which were fome Provifions, Utenfils; and a 
great Quantity of cured Fifh at Lorembec. All the 
landing Places here were defended with flrong 
Breajt-works of the fame Conftruction with thofe 
round Kennington Cove. At the Cove, where our 
Qftujon was landed, there were two pieces of the 
Enemy's Cannon left with their Trunnions knocked 
D % off 9 



i\ The Reduction 

off, and at their upper Encampment 3 eight pound- 
ers, two of them {piked up. After Brigadier Wolfe 
had reconnoitred this Poll, his whole Detachment 
incamped themfelves here about 4 in the After- 
noon, and the Light Infantry and Rangers marched 
back to the Grand Camp. 
June. 13. At Day-break this Detachment began to 
make a Road for carrying the Artillery? from the 
landing Cove, to the Spot fixed upon for a Battery. 
About 9 o'Clock this Camp was alarmed by a 
MefTage from Major Rofs? who commanded a de- 
tached Guard at about a Mile and an half's diftance, 
between the Camp and the Wood, that a large 
Party of the Enemy from the Garrifon was advanc- 
ing towards his Poft — upon which 4 Companies of 
Grenadiers, with a large Detachment from the Line? 
marched to fuftain the Major. But they foon faw, 
that the Enemy came only to burn fome ftraggling 
Houfes to the Eattward of the Grand Battery near 
the Beach of the Harbour, and then retreated 
peaceably into the Garrifon? as our Detachment did 
to the Camp at the Light- boufe. 

The working Parties in the Grand Camp conti- 
nued employed on the Roads? by Day, and during 
- the Night in throwing up 3 Redoubts? on the Emi- 
nences from the Left to the Right. This Day a 
Body of about 300 Men made a Sally from the Gar- 
rifon upon their advanced Party — but in about an 
hour and an half they were repulfed by fome few 
Regulars and Light Infantry. 

The Light -boufe Camp being incommoded by 
the Enemy's Cannon from the Ifland Battery, about 
9 o'Clock this Evening the Line removed to a 
Situation of greater Security — but the Grenadiers 
did not until Day -break. 



of LoUISBOURG. 25 

This Day, and fome others, the Service of land- 
! ing the Stores and Artillery was interrupted by the 
Jexceflive6#r/ upon the Shore, and many Boats were 
I fwamped, and lbme Provifions damaged and loft. 

14. About Day-break, while the Grenadiers ofjt 
! the Light-houfe Camp were on their march in re- 
I moving their Camp, they received Orders to fuftain 
i Major Rofs's Poft, who had notice from the Ran- 
i gersy that a Body of the Enemy appeared to move 
! that way. But, before they joined him, Counter- 
1 Orders were ifiued to them; on feeing the Enemy 
retreating, having, as it appeared, intended nothing 
more than to alarm them. 

This Day the Befieged towed a Sloop, with two 
24 pounders mounted on her Bows, into the Mouth 
of the Harbour, the better to annoy Brigadier 
Wolfe** little Encampment near the Shore for land- 
ing his Artillery. She lay at Anchor near the IJland 
Battery, fired her Cannon for fome Hours, and 
then rettirned into the Harbour. She came to her 
Station again in the Afternoon, and fired for about 
an Hour and an half, with as little Damage to the 
Encampment, as before. She fired alfo upon the 
Diana Frigate and Hunter Sloop, that were ftationed 
at Anchor as near the Harbour's Mouth as they 
could go with Security, to give the Alarm to Sir 
Charles Hardy's Squadron, that lay farther out in 
the Offing, whenever the French Squadron mould 
make any Attempts to pufh out to Sea. The Diana 
returned the Sloop's Fire, but found the Sloop out 
of the Reach of her Metal ; while the Sloop's 
heavier Metal reached her, and at times killed and 
wounded 6 of her Men. The Diana dared not to 
go nearer in, as the Sloop was covered by 10 two 
and forty pounders on the IJland, pointed towards 
the Offing. 

This 



26 



The Reduction 



This Night feveral Pieces of Cannon, and fome 
Mortars were landed for Brigadier Wolfe's Detach- 
ment. 

The working Parties at the Grand Camp were 
conftantly employed upon the Roads and Redoubts^ 
and in landing Artillery and Stores. — Thofe three 
Redoubts were neceffary to fecure a Communication 
from the Right to the Left, in the Front of the 
Camp. 

1 5. There was a large Party at Work in drawing 
Artillery and carrying Fafcines and Picquets for the. 
Light-boufe Battery. This Day 4 Mortars were" 
ftiipped for the Light-houfe, with a Quantity of 
Provifions and Stores from the Tranfports. 

16. The working Parties were employed as the 
Day before— —and upon \ht Roads. — No Artillery 
could yet be landed for the Grand Camp. 

17. They were employed in the fame manner. 
This Day two 8 Inch Mortars and 3 Royals, were 
fent to the Light -houfe Camp. 

18. This Morning the landing of Stores was 
interrupted by the great Surf driving on the Shore. 
In the Afternoon fome 24 pounders were got on 
Shore. The working Parties of the Grand Camp 
were employed as before on the Roads [for the Artil- 
lery. — The working Parties at the Light -houfe were 
employed in landing and drawing Artillery, and at 
Night in erecting Batteries, and mounting Cannon 
and Mortars. 

This Night VEcho Frigate of 32 Guns bound 
to Quebec with Stores and Provifions got out of 
the Harbour, by the favour of a dark foggy Night, 
and a briik Gale, which drove Sir Charles Hardy 
and his Squadron to Sea — Some of his Frigates 
chafed, took and brought her in with them a Day 
or two afterwards. 

19. Sir 



<f LOUISBOURG. 27 

19. Sir Charles's Squadron returned to their Sta-^w, 
tion off the Harbour's Mouth. The working Par- 
1 ties of the Grand Camp continued on the Reads t 
I and in landing Artillery and Stores. 

Between 9 and 10 this Night two Batteries* one 
of Cannon and one of Mortars, were opened at the 
Light -houfe upon the Ships in the Harbour, and 
upon the I/land Battery, which continued a brifk 
Fire until Day-light, that was as brifkly returned, 
but without any Damage on the Light-houfe fide, 
on Account of the Height of its Situation, and 
the Shelter of Rockc and Hillocks. The Bomb 
Battery there confifted of 2 Mortars of 1 3 Inches 
Diameter, two of 8, and 6 Royals. At fome 
Diftance were 2 Hawitzers of 8 Inches, and fmall 
Batteries of one, two, and three Pieces of Cannon , 
12 and 24 pounders, in all feven, properly difpofed 
ij along the Shore to fire both riochet and point-blank. 
1 The whole Line marched to fuftain the Batteries, 
i if the Ship's Crews had made any Attempts to 
I attack them. Part of the left Wing of the Grand 
A*my and the Light Infantry were in Motion, to 
3 prevent any Parties out of the Garrifon from attack- 
ji ing Brigadier Wolfe* $ Detachment in flank. General 
Amherft's Camp fired feveral times in the Night at 
the Covert-way 9 to divert the Attention of the 
Garrifon to that fide. 

20. So warm a Fire from the Light -houfe was 
continued upon the Ships, that they judged k 
; advifeable in the Afternoon to warp in about 600 
! Yards nearer to the Town ; which was too great 
a Diftance from our Batteries, to give them much 
Difturbance. At Night the Mortars there, were 
chiefly directed to the lfiand Battery. The Enemy 
, 1 burned an old Ship in the Harbour. 

it. A 



28 



The Reduction 



Jum* 21. A great Part of this Day there was a ftrong 
Fire from the Ships towards the Light-houfe Battery, 
but without any Effect, but that of expending the 
Enemy's Ammunition — as there was alfo from the 
I/land at Intervals, with as little Damage to our 
People or Batteries. The Ships fired feveral Shot 
into the left Wing of the Grand Camp, as did the 
Garrifon at the Redoubts, and the right Wing, and 
fometimes at two or three People, and fingle Paf- 
fengers from one Place to another; but, without 
Effect. 

The Mortars at the Light-houfe played brifkly 
on the I/land-, the Fire was returned from thence 
with 5 pieces of Cannon directed that way, and 2 
ten Inch Mortars. 

The working Parties were employed on the Roads, 
in landing Stores and Artillery, and in carrying 
Stores for the Grand Camp. 

22. The Grand Camp improved the Advantage 
of this Day's Fog, as well as a Part of lafl Night in 
throwing up an advanced Redoubt between the 
Centre and Right Redoubt, to facilitate the Pofleflion 
of the Green- hill, the moft commanding Eminence 
from the Camp- fide of the Town, at the Diftance 
of about 8oo Yards from the Glacis, the eafier to 
carry on their Approaches to the Walls. 

Four hundred Men under the Command of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Hale were employed to erect a Bat- , 
tery of fix 24 pounders at the Light-houfe, to play 
upon the Ijland, whofe Battery was frequently 
troublefome, though it did no great Execution. ; 
This Day a Block-houfe was erected to fecure the; 
Communication to the Light-houfe. . 

The landing of Artillery and Stores was this 
Day interrupted by the exceffive Surf on the Shore, 
and feveral Boats were fwamped and ftove. 

23. A j 



Of LOUISBOURG. 29 

23. A Company of Grenadiers worked hard onj t 
the new Battery at the Light -houfe another Par- 
ty was employed in ere&ing a Battery to play on 
the Ships from an Eminence behind the Grand Bat- 
tery — the Ships gave frequent Interruptions to this 
Party. The Garrifon kept a pretty conflant Fire 
directed towards the working Parties from the 
Grand Camp — as did the I/land- Bat tery towards the 
Light-houfe Parties — the latter was chiefly returned 
in the Night time. 

About this time they began the Epaulement, a 
Work for covering and facilitating the Approaches 
to the Town by the Green-Hill. This Work was 
about a Quarter of a Mile in length, about nine Feet 
high, and fix teen Feet broad, made with Gabions , 
Fafcines and Earth, to be Proof againft all Cannon 
Ball. It employed as many Men as could be fpared 
for many Days; who, at the Beginning, were much 
interrupted by the Water of the very wet Morafs y 
upon which they were obliged to make their Road r 
and to throw up this [Vork, with Earth brought from 
fome diftance. 

Great Quantities of Gabions and Fafcines were 
landed and carried up for this JVork^ with all pofli- 
ble Speed and Diligence. 

24. The working Parties were employed as the 
Day before, and with the fame Interruptions. In 
the Park of Artillery, thirteen 24, and feven 12 
pounders this Day. 

25. The Light-houfe Battery opened at Day- 
light upon the Ifland with five 24 pounders : The 
Ships and the Ifland returned their Fire brifkly,and 
wounded one of their 24 pounders. In the After- 
noon the Embrazures at the eaft End of the Ifland 
Battery, appeared very much fhattered by the Shot 
from the Light-houfe— Sine?. 4 o'Clocl; this After- 

E noon, 



30 The ReduBion. 

noon, the Enemy fired only Shells from thence ; 
which made our People fuppofe that moft of the 
Guns that bore on the Light- houje, were either 
wounded or difmounted. The Battery at Maurepas 
Pointy and the Men of War, kept a conftant Fire 
directed that way ; but with little or no Effect, on 
Account of the great Diftance. 
June. 26. The advanced Parties of the Grand Camp 
had a Skirmifh with a reconnoitring Party of the 
Befieged, who had come out to fet Fire to the 
Block- boufe-, but were foon forced back without 
effecting their Defign. This Night our Troops 
got Pofleffion of the Green-bill, without any great 
Oppofition, and with very, little Lofs. 

27. A more conftant Fire of Guns and Mortars 
from the Ships and Garrifon upon our working and 
advanced Parties. The Light hcufe Battery now 
and then threw a Shell upon the I/land, to prevent 
the Enemy from repairing their Works. A brafs 
24 pounder was loft in 12 Fathom Water, by flip- 
ing off the Float for landing Artillery, they called 
Catamaran. This Day the Admiral fent on Shore 
200 Marines, or rather Troops fecving as Marines 
on this Expedition, who took Poft at Kennikgton 
Cove, and were a great Relief to the Army in 
Camp. 

28. The Enemy kept a pretty conftant Fire upon 
the Grand Camp and Batteries, with little Effect. 

This Night they funk two Frigates and two 
Store- ftoips with a great Weight of Stones in them > 
they were faftened-together with Cables, and moored 
down with Anchors, in the narrow Entrance of 
their Harbour, to prevent more than one of our 
Ships at a time from getting in there, if we mould 
think it neceffary at any time of the Siege to force 
the Harbour with our Fleet. 

29. Some 



of LoUISBOURG. 31 

29. Some Indians fhewed themfelves and killed 
one of our Men — the Light Infantry purfued, killed 
and fcalped two, and brought in another of them: 

This whole Night the work of the Epaulement 
was much interrupted, by the brifk Fire the Enemy 
conftantiy made on our working Parties there. The 
greateft Interruption they had was from UArethuJe 
Frigate, ftationed as high up the Harbour on that 
fide as the Depth of Water would permit, with her 
Broad-fide bearing upon the low Pafs, by which 
our Troops were obliged to advance, to make their 
Approaches-, which the Epaulement., when it was 
completed enabled them to do, with more Eafe, 
and an inconfiderable Lofs^ 

30. A very brifk Fire from the Ships and Garri-j t 
fon was made upon our working Parties. Some 
Shells were thrown from the Battery at Maurepas 
Pointy and from the JJland upon the Parties at 
the Light-houfe — In the Night thefe Parties 
worked very brifkly in drawing Cannon from 
the Light -houfe, about the Diftance of two Miles, 
over uneven Ground never fmoothed into a Road, 
to their new Batteries near the Grand Battery, to 
play upon the Frigate and the reft of the Ships, and 
to remove them once more, if poflible •, that the 
Grand Camp might carry on their Approaches with 
the greater Security and more Expedition. Some 
People of the Garrifon, to exprefs their Surprife at 
this and fome other Inftances of the Suddennefs of 
Brigadier lVolfe\ Motions from one Place to ano- 
ther, and their Sentiments of the Effect of his Ope- 
tions, ufed to fay There is no Certainty where 

to find him — but, whenever he goes, he carries 
with him a Mortar in one Pocket, and a 24 pounder 
in the other. 

E 2 July i. 



32 ¥he Reduction 

July. July i. Upon Intelligence received, that the 
Enemy's Picquets on a wooding Party of about 
400 had in the Morning crept out about a Mile 
beyond the Barrafoy Brigadier Wolfe at the Head 
of 100 Light Infantry, fupported by near 300 
Regulars, with Orders left for the Picquets of the 
Line to advance, if necefTary, in about a quarter of 
an Hour came up with the Enemy who made a 
Stand for about half an hour or better. But, being 
repulfed in this Skirmim, they began to retreat 
from Hill to Hill, but in good Order, and firing 
frequently. Our Party purfued them all the while, 
referving their Fire till they came very near -, when 
they gave them fo warm a Salute, that they made 
a precipitate Retreat to their former PofL This 
Affair lafted about two Hours and an half, with only 
6 or 8 of our Men wounded. By this Succefs the 
Brigadier became Mafter of two very advantageous 
Eminences, that he never quitted. A Redoubt was 
thrown up with all Expedition, to maintain the 
farther! Poft; and a little nearer advanced, a Redan, 
"within 400 Yards of the Enemy's Picquets, amidft 
a brifk cannonading both from the Town and the 
Ships. From this Situation our Batteries, without 
being much expofed, could play on the Ships at a 
good Diftance, and by that Means greatly facilitate 
the approaches from the Grand Camp. 

In the Afternoon a Party near the Right, after a 
flight Skirmifh, repulfed another Party of the Ene- 
my towards Cape Noir, who attempted to furprize 
and interrupt our working Parties. The Garrifon 
continued a pretty conftant cannonading. 

Some Deferters came in from the Garrifon, who 
were all fent on board the Fleet , that they might 
not have even a PofTibility of acting as Spies under 
the Pretence of beiner Defer isrs. 

This 



of Louisbourg. 33 

This Night two other Frigates were funk at the 
Entrance of the Harbour, very near the others — 
Part of almoft all their Top-mafts appeared above 
Water. 

2. There were about 100 Marines fent on Shore July. 
from the Admiral's Ship properly ofncer'd, to join 
Brigadier Wolfe's Party near the Grand- Battery. 

3. Our Troops were now very indefatigable in 
forming their Lines. 

4. Notwithstanding the warm cannonading from 
the Befieged every Day, Five hundred Men were 
conftantly employed in making Fafcines for the 
Roads and Epaulement. 

5. The faithful Partizans of the French, their 
few native Indians, fhewed themfelves very watch- 
ful about the Edges of the Woods, by taking off 
fome of the Tranfports Men that were too curioufly 
adventurous, contrary to Orders, and intirely igno- 
rant how to deal with fuch a wary lurking Enemy. 
Sometimes they nabbed or carried off an Out-Cen- 
tinel, after creeping through Weeds and Shrubs, and 
fculking there for feveral hours together, to watch 
an Opportunity either of mooting, or ruining in a 
Body upon him unperceived, when his Back was 
turned. 

Laft Night Brigadier Wolfe began to play a Bat- 
tery of 7 Pieces of Cannon, 12 and 24 pounders, 
and two 13 Inch Mortars on the Ships, while the 
reft of his Party were very active in getting more 
Guns mounted. 

6. The Vigilance and Activity of General Am- 
berft, and of the Brigadiers Whit more and Laurence 
in forwarding their grand Beftgn from the Camp- 
fide, was not difcouraged or ieffened by the brifk, 
almoft conftant cannonading of the Befieged, both 
from their Ships and Garrifcu\ which only took off" 

a Man 



34 *Ihe Reduction 

a Man or two now and then, and at other times 
wounded fome few others. The working Parties 
from the Grand Camp^ always under the Infpe&ion 
of one of the General Officers, were conftantly em- 
ployed in forwarding the Approaches \ while the 
advanced and covering Parties always maintained 
the Advantages they had already gained, and often 
poflfeffed themfelves of more advanced Situations,, 
to enable them with Succefs to employ the van: 
Train of Artillery and Quantity of Stores of all 
Kinds, the Officers and Men of the Fleet had now 
landed from the Tranfports, in all the Places that 
were moft convenient to their Roads. The Ap- 
proaches to the Town were greatly delayed by 
unavoidable Caufes — almoft a continual Surf on the 
Shore of landing the numerous Bogs neceffary to 
be drained before any Roads could be made over 
them for Carriages to pafs ; and the making of 
luch a Cover as the Epaulement from the Fire of the 
Ships in the Harbour, to which the moft conve- 
nient Pafs of Approach was expofed. Our Army 
had a Demonftration how necejjary it is to have a 
Squadron of Ships in that Harbour in the Time of 
a Siege ; and the Garri/on, of how little other Ser- 
vice an inferior Squadron to that of the Befiegers 
is, but to prolong the Day of Capitulation.. All 
the Troops were in good Health and high Spirits,, 
and fuffered confiderably lefs than might have been 
expected from the conftant Cannonading of the 
Befieged. 

7. Parties of the Troops were employed this 
Day as others had been on the former Days. Their 
Indifference to what the unexperienced might .call a 
dreadful Fire from the Befieged at Intervals, was 
very remarkable. They regarded the Enemy's fre- 
quent Shot and Shells, juft as littk as they did the 

random 



of Louisbourg. 35 

random Fire of their Mufquetry ; the Shells in gene- 
ral rather lefs efpecially in the Nighty when they 
could eafily difcern the Line of their Direclion by 
the Blaze of their Fufees* — and if they fufpected 
that they were within the Diftance of a burfting 
Shelly they inftantly threw themfelves flat on their 
Faces upon the Ground, and almoft always with 
Security — their greateft Danger was from a Shell 
that did not burft for fome time after it fell 

8. This Night the Enemy made a vigorous Sally July. 
from Cape Noir about 1 1 o'Clock upon our ad- 
vanced and working Parties at the Lines, where 
Brigadier Laurence commanded. The Salliers with 
a Body of about 900 Men, by the Darknefs of the 
Night and the Silence of their Motions, were for- 
tunate enough to pafs unobferved by fome of our 
advanced Parties commanded by Lord Dundonaly 
and to furprize the. working Parties in the Trenches > 
who with fome Difficulty retreated, as they had not 
their Arms to defend themfelves. Our covering 
Parties no fooner heard their Fire, than they ad- 
vanced, and, after a very brifk Oppofition, bravely 
repulfed the Salliers in a little time, with the Lois 
of two Captains and 17 of their Men, wounded 
feveral others, and made fome Prifoners ; among 
whom was a wounded Officer, who fome time after- 
wards loft his Life by his Wounds in our Hofpi- 
tal, becaufe he would not part with a Leg to 
fave it. The Lofs our Parties fufbined in, this 
Skirmilh, was a Captain and 5 Men killed, 17 
wounded, and 1 1 made Prifoners, befides the 
wounded Lieutenant Tew, and Captain Bontein an 
Engineer. The Garrifon fent our a Flag of T ruce 
for time to bury their Dead. 

It is remarkable that the Officers and the Party on 
this Sally y owed what Refolution they (hewed to. 
. v . the 



36 The Reduction 

the flamy, temporary Courage infpired by Claret, 
which they had very plentifully guzzled before their 
Attempt, as appeared from the Intoxication of our 
Prifoners. Some Beferters reported, that no Parties 
could be found in the Garrijon, forward enough to 
go on this Service, without being firft animated by 
a fufficient Quantity of Wine. 
t fy m 9. By Order of the Admiral, Volunteers for the 
Company of Miners were enquired for on board all 

the Men of War- All the Men who profefTed 

themfelves acquainted with the ufe of the Spade 
and Pickax, (hewed great Readinefs to go on this 
Service — moft of the Men on board. V Arethufe 
Frigate was obliged to haul in clofe to the Town. 

This Day Brigadier Laurence wasfii?htly wounded 
by a piece of a Shell that burll: at lbme Diflance 
from him. 

10. The Volunteers for the Company of Miners 
were fenton Shore from all the Ships to the Captain 
of the Party, about 200 in Number, who were 
incamped by themfelves. 

As the Befiegers every Day and Night continued 
to advance with their Works, the Garrifon kept 
a brifk, conftant cannonading, and threw feverai 
Shells. It is remarkable, that they difcharged great 
Quantities of old Iron of feverai Kinds, (fuch as 
Shovels * Tongs, and the like, befides a moft de- 
ftructive Sort of fquare Iron-bars of about 5 or G 
Inches long, and about an Inch and a half fquare, 
leveral of them cafed in Plates of Tin,) which they 
call Mitraille^ by way of Grape Shot— the Wounds 
they give are very difficult, if at all, to be. cured, 
from their being made with fuch angular, ragged 
Weapons. 

This Night our People obferved a great Fire in 
the Woods in fight of Lvaijbourg, which they 

rightly 



of Louisbourg 27 
rightly conjectured to be a Signal to the Garrifon 
ot Monf. Boijhiberes Arrival, who, as we learned 
by the Report of Deferters, was expected about this 
time with a Party of Canadians and Indians, ibme 
to reinforce the Garrifon, and the reft to harrafs the 
Rear of our Camp, and to watch Opportunities of 
cutting off all fmall Parties of our Men, who might 
be accidentally detached to any diftant Parts. This 
Chief is well known to the Colonies at and about 
Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia, for his own faith- 
lefs Inhumanity, and for the mifchievous Activity 
and treacherous Cruelty of his lurking Parties. 

Ti. Some of his Party feized a Soldier who wasy a 
driving a Waggon to the left Wing of the Camp; 
from whom they extorted all the Intelligence he 
was able to give, by the Menaces of a fpeedy Exe- 
cution if he did not, or reported any thing they 
fliould difcover to be falfe. 

12. However, by what Means is not very cer- 
tain, he contrived to make his Efcape, and after 
being fome time purfued undiscovered, returned to 
the Camp, and reported that the Party faid they 
were about 50 near the Place he was brought to, 
and to the Number of 200 farther in the Wood — 
and that they had with them a great many Head of 
Cattle.— 

13. Our working Parties continued very indefa- 
tigable upon the Trenches; as did 

14. The Befieged in doing all that a brifk Can- 
nonading could do, to force them from the At- 
tempt, or at leaft to leffon their Numbers, in order 
to delay their Succefs. The Batteries of the Be- 
fiegers were traced out laft Night. 

15. In the Night the mifchievous Frigate U Are- 
thuje taking the advantage of a dark Night and a 
thick Fog, got out of the Harbour, but not un- 

F perceived 



3 8 The Reduction 

perceived by the Light-houfe Party, who made 
Signals with Rockets to Sir Charles Hardy's Squa- 
dron-, Several of whom chafed her, but at a great 
Diftance, till they loft Sight of her in a Fog impe- 
netrable to human Eyes, and extended on this 
Coaft for many a Score Leagues. Two or three of 
the Dtferters from our Camp were fent to France in 
this Frigate — another had his Head mot off while he 
was very acYive on Duty in the Town. 

1 6. About 7 o*Clock this Evening, Brigadier 
Wolfe made himfelf Mafter of a Poft occupied by 
she Enemy's Picquets within about 400 Yards of 
the Weft Gate, where about 100 of their Volunteers 
had fecured themfclves behind fome fmall Breaft- 
works of Sand- Bags — He advanced towards this 
Poft with only 8 or 10 Men, leaving Orders for a 
fuftaining Party to follow him from the Green-bill. 
Upon his approaching the Enemy, they fired fome 
few Mufkefs at him ; when he difpatched an Officer 
to the adjacent Redan, with Orders for an Officer 
and 20 of the Light Infantry to crofs the Barrafoy 
Bridge immediately, fupported by 20 Grenadiers. 
They advanced with all Expedition one after ano- 
ther, at about 2 Yards diftance from each other*, 
and on the Bridge received three Fires from the 
Enemy's Breaft-works, without any Lofs. On 
the Light Infantry's advancing farther without firing 
their Pieces, the Enemy's Party retired with muck 
Precipitation towards the Weft-Gate, firing fome 
random Shot in their Flight,, and were purfued, 
without the Lofs of a Man, in the midft of a 
warm Fire of grape and round Shot both from the 
Town and Ships, and from the fmall Arms of the 
Rampart and Covert-way. At this Poft the Briga- 
dier made a good Lodgment. The Fire from the 
Beneged was continued brifkly during the whole 

Night 



X)f LoUISBOTTRG. 39 

Night after, with feveral Shells thrown at Intervals 
into the new Poft we had gained j which was rein- 
forced with 5 Companies of Grenadiers and 100 
Highlanders under the Command of Lieutenant- 
Col. HaU. 

This Night the Left of the Lines of Approach 
was opened by the very fame Grenadiers, and the 
Remainder of their Company, with the Lofs only 
of 4 or 5 Men, and 7 or 8 wounded. 

The Honourable Capt. Edgcumbe with 6 or 7 
Ships replaced Sir Charles Hardf% Squadron on the 
Station off the Harbour's Mouth. 

1 7. The Parallel was [extended from the Right < 
to the Left with little Lofs, in the Face of a very v 
hot Fire from the Befieged, 

A Deferter from Boijhibere's Party came in, and 
faid, they had hanged 3 or 4 Seamen whom they 
had taken on the 5th belonging to the Tranfports. 

This Evening Sir Charles Hardy, with fome of 
his Squadron, returned to his Station — the Frigate 
was lucky enough to make her Efcape — 

1 8. There was a conftant briik Fire of Mufketry 
from the Covert-way, made by the Befieged all laft 
Night and this whole Day, upon our Parties on the 
Lines, who fuffered very little from it. The Garri- 
fon directed feveral of their Shells both in the Day 
and Night towards our Laboratories and Maga- 
zines in the Grand Camp— The Direction was given 
by the Information of a Deferter from us. 

More of the Tranfports Men were taken off by 
the Vigilance of fome lurking Indians near the 
Shore in Gabreufe Bay — One Warning was not 
enough for them. — 

19. The Lines from the right and left Wing 
were joined by the Befiegers — and our Batteries 
from the Left were opened and began to play with 

F % Succefs 



4© The Redu5iio?i 

Succefs upon the Baftion Dauphine at the Well 
Gate, notwithstanding the brilk and conftant Can- 
nonading from the Garrifon •, from which our Peo- 
ple differed much lefs than might have been ex- 
pected. 

20. The Operations of the former Day were fuc- 
ceisfully continued — In the Evening a Body of about 
400 Seamen were fent on Shore, and erected by the 
next Morning a very ftrong Battery of 5 pieces of 
Cannon to the Right, without the Lofs of a Man. 
The Seamen were under the Direction of an Engi- 
neer 9 and commanded by a Captain of one of our 
Frigates, who were all to take their Turns at this Du- 
ty, as the jenior Captains had done at that of land- 
ing the Artiilery and Stores, with the Lieutenants 
of the Fleet in Rotation upon both thefe Services. 

2 1 . The Operations of this Day were much the 
fame with thofe of the two former ones — About 
2 in the Afternoon, by a Shell from the Light -houfe 
Battery, as the moft credible Prifoners declare, Le 
Cekbre of 64 Guns in the Harbour was fet on Fire, 
and after her Allowance of Powder on board for 
the Day blew up part of her Deck with a very loud 
Explofion, fhe burned with great Violence. As 
this Ship was burning, the Fire communicated it- 
feif to V 1 Entreprennant of 74 Guns, and from her 
fpread itfelf to Le Capricieux of 64 Guns— There 
was no Explofion from the two latter Ships, as the 
Men as been very bnfk in throwing their Powder 
-over- board, before the Flames could fpread them- 
. felves fo far. — This muft not be understood of the 
Quantity of Powder thefe Ships arrived with, as 
complete for Service — That they had taken out at 
the Beginning of the Siege, and lodged on board a 
Store Jhip not far from the Town, as a Precaution 
againft the more dreadful Cgnfequence of an acci- 
dental. 



of LOUISBOURG. 41 

dental Shell from any of our Batteries falling into 
their Magazines: And every Night they carried on 
board each of the Ships the Quantity they judged 
would be Efficient for the Service of the following 
Bay — This is what was above called their Allow- 
ance of Powder jor the Day, As foon as the Fire 
reached their Guns that were loaded, fome with 
round, fome with grape Shot, they difcharged them- 
felves indiferiminateiy on Friend and Foe, fome to- 
wards the Town and the Battery of the Befiegers, 
and others on their own Ships and Boats. Their 
Men with much Difficulty efcaped on Shore in 
their Boats, through a brifk Fire from our Batteries 
added to the accidental Difcharges of their own 
Ships Guns. The three Ships made a prodigious 
Blaze for the whole Night, and after burning down 
to the Water's Edge, quite loofed from their 
Moorings, they were by the Tide driven on Shore 
upon the Mud at the Barrafoy End of the Har- 
bour, with all their Iron and Guns tumbled one 
upon another in their Holds, which 47 will be faved 
by our People. 

Le Prudent of 74 Guns, and Le Bienfaifant of 
64, feeing this cafual Burning of the greater part of 
their Squadron, warped ofT as fall as poffible to- 
wards the other End of the Harbour, to be out of 
the Reach of the Flames from the other Ships; 
Fortune referving their Fate fame few Days longer. 

22. About Sun rife the Befiegers opened two July. 
other Batteries on the Right with thirteen 24 pound- 
ers, and another of 7 Mortars, to throw Shells 
into the Covert-way and Ramparts, from whence 
the Befieged kept Night and Day a very hot Fire 
with their Mujketry, and they were not lefs active 
with their Cannon and Mortars. Another Battery 
from the Left, which was not 500 Yards off, played 

brilkly 



42 7be Redudlion 

. brhldy, and with fo very vifible an Effect on the 
Fortifications, that the Befiegers had the encourag- 
ing Satisfaction to fee the Revetement, with a great 
Quantity of Earth tumbling down after the firing 
of moft of their Shot. 

There were three other Batteries from the North- 
fide of the Barrafoy Bridge, one of 4, one of 5, 
and a third of 7 Pieces of Cannon* befides 2 large 
Mortars, kept conftantly playing on the Weft Gate 
and its Cavalier, where fome Guns were difmount- 
ed ; and at Intervals they were directed to the two 
remaining Ships in the Harbour, with exceeding; 
good Effect every Way — The Officers of the Be- 
sieged have fince more than once declared, that 
they never faw any Artillery better ferved than at 
this Siege— That there was hardly one of our Shot, 
that did not perform fome Execution, and many 
of them from their judicious Direction did them as 
much Damage as was poflible for any fingle Shot 
to do. A Battery was begun on the Lett for 4 
twenty-four pounders. 

Every Night fince the near Approach to the 
Walls, there was a Party of our Light Infantry 
kept without the Lines near the Bottom of the Gla- 
cis, to prevent our working Parties on the Trenches 
and Batteries from being furprized by any fudden 
Sally of the Befieged. 

The Batteries on the Right of the Lines played 
upon the Citadel Baftion with fuch Effect, that a 
Breach was very foon expected there. Several of 
our Mortars were ferved with very great Succefs 
— The Town was fet on Fire feveral times by Shells 
thrown from the Right — fome of the very firft 
lighted moft of the Citadel Buildings and the new 
Barracks into a prodigious Blaze, — Our Men were 
not a little rejoiced when they faw the Church St ee^ 



of Louisbourg. 43 

pie and Spire knocked down, as they had heard, 
that the Befieged conftantly kept an Officer up 
there, to obferve the Motions and Advances of the 
Befiegers from time to time, 

This Night the Seamen were employed in erect- 
ing more advantageous, more advanced Batteries % 
which they did with great Spirit, and equal Sue- 
cefs. 

23. A brifk Cannonading was continued from July, 
all our Trenches with good Execution upon feveral 
Parts of the Fortification, befides that of the Co^ 
horns, and of the French Mortars for throwing of 
Stones — and our Shells fet the Town on Fire in 
feveral Places. 

24. The Cannonading from our Trenches was 
continued with great Spirit and little Lofs — and 
our Shells fet the Town on Fire in feveral Places. 

Another Battery was opened this Day to the 
Right of our Lines, to flank the Citadel Baftion-~ 
We have fince learned, that feveral of the Guns 
©n the Ramparts were about this time wounded y 
and feveral difmounted — and that three of the 
Mortars in the Garrifon were rendered ufelefs by a 
Jingle Shot from one of our Batteries. 

This Day the Fire from the Befieged flackened 

confiderably while ours increaied with our 

additional Works and vifible Succefs. 

Some Deferters that came in to our Trenches this 
Day reported, that the Inhabitants of the Town 
were fo much harraffed and diftreffed by our Shoe 
and Shells, that they on their Knees intreated the 
Governor to capitulate — but, to no manner of Pur- 

pofe. Whatever Strefs might be retted on this 

Report, moft of our Men improved it to their 
own Advantage, that of keeping up their brave 
Spirits,, with the very probable Profpect of the 

fpeedy 



44 °j Louisbourg. 

fpeedy Reduction of a Place, that had given them 
fo much Fatigue, and promifed them fo much 
Reputation. This Day the Fire of our fmall Arms 
into the Embrazures of the Ramparts, drove the 
Enemy from their Guns. 
July, 25. The Befiegers were indefatigable in exerting 
their Efforts from the Trenches againft the Fortifi- 
cations, which had an exceeding good Effect. The 
Citadel Baft ion , and many of their Embrazures were 
very confiderably damaged — and a large Breach was 
made in the Baftion Dauphine at the Weft Gate — 
which had encouraged them to bring their Scaling 
"Ladders into the Trenches, that they might be ready 
for the very firft favourable Opportunity of an 
Efcalade, if that Extremity mould not be prevented 
by the fpeedy Surrender of the Garrifon upon the 
formal Summons of the General. 

About Noon, by the Admiral's Order, two Boats, 
a Barge and Pinnace or Cutter from every Ship, 
of the Fleet, except the Northumberland, an Invalid, 
manned only with their proper Crews, and armed 
with Mufquets and Bayonets, CutlalTes, Piftols, 
and Pole- Axes, each Boat under the Direction of a 
Lieutenant and Mate or Midjhipman, rendezvoufed 
at the Admiral's Ship : From thence they were 
detached by two's and three's at a time to join thofe 
of Sir Charles Hardy's Squadron off the Mouth of 
the Harbour. There they were in the Evening 
ranged in two Divifions under the Command of 
the two Senior Mafters and Commanders in the Fleet, 
the Captains Laforey and Balfour. 

In this Order they put off from Sir Charles's 
Squadron about 12 o'Clock, and by the Advan- 
tage of the foggy Darknefs of the Night, and the 
inviolable Silence of their People, paddled into 
the Harbour of Lcuisbourg, unperceived either by 

the 



of Louisbourg. 45 

! the JJland Battery they were obliged to come ^4,25. 
very near to, or by the two Men of War that 
rode at Anchor at no great Diftance from them. 
There was no great Probability of their being 
perceived from any Part of the Garrifon, not only 
on Account of their greater Diftance, but alfo 
of the preconcerted brifk Diver/ton made upon 
them from all our Batteries about that time. Be- 
fides, the Beficged themfelves left no body an 
Opportunity to hear any Noife : For, from hav- 

| ing in the Day time obferved the numerous Scal- 
ing-ladders that were brought into our Trenches, 
they were under fome Apprehenfions of an Efca- 
lade intended as this Night, and kept a conftant 
Fire with their Mufketry from the Ramparts 
during the whole time-, with the Defign, if pof- 
fible, to deter the Befiegers from that Attempt, 
by fhewing them how well they were upon their 
Guard in all the Places it could probably be 
made. 

During this feeming Security and prudent Pre- 
caution on both Sides, the bold Stratagem of the 
Boats for furprizing the two remaining Ships in 
the Enemy's Harbour, every Moment ripened 
for the Execution. After pufhing in as far almoft 
as the Grand Battery left the Ships ftiould be too 
foon alarmed by their Oars, they took a Sweep 
from thence towards the Part of the Harbour, 
where the Gentlemen knew the Ships were, who 
had before very well reconnoitred it — and prefent- 
ly difcovered them. Each Divifion of the Boats 
was no fooner within Sight and Hail of the noble 
Object of their Attempt, Capt. Laforey's of Le 
Prudent* and Capt. Balfour's of Le Bienfaifant, 
than, while the Centinelson board having hailed 
G them 



^6 The Reduction 

July, them in vain, began to fire on them, each of 
the Commanders ordered his Boats to give way 
along-fide their refpective Ships, and to board 
them immediately with all the Expedition and 
good Order they could obferve. 

The Boats Crews no longer able to contain? 
themfelves in Silence, after their Manner, gave 
loud Cheers as they were pulling up along-fide , and 
with the mod intrepid Activity, armed fome 
with Mufkets, Bayonets and Cutlaffes, others 
with Piftols, Cutlaffes and Pole-axes, followed 
their brave headers and boarded the Ships in art 
Inftant with great Spirit, on each Bow, Quarter 
and Gang-way-— and after very little Refiftance 
from the terrified Crews, foon found themfelves 
in Poffefiion of two fine Ships of the Enemy, one 
of 74, and one of 64 Guns, with the Lofs of 
very few of the Seamen, and but one Mate. 

The Befieged were now fufficiently alarmed on 
all Sides by the Noife of the Seamen at boarding, 
the Cheers leaving them no Room to doubt that 
it was from Englijh Seamen, and the Direction of 
the confufed Sound of Voices and Firing after- 
wards foon leading them to fufpect the real Fact, 
an Attempt upon their Ships. The heroic, fuc- 
cefsful Adventurers were employed in fecuring 
their Prifoners in the Ships Holds, and concert- 
ing the mod effectual Methods for fecuring thefc 
Prizes out of the Reach of the enraged Enemy i 
when both the Ships and Boats received a moft 
furious Fire of Cannon, Mortars and Mufkets 
from all Parts that it couid be directed to them y 
from the IJland Battery at no great Diftance y 
from the Battery on Point Maurepas a little far- 
ther off and from all the Guns of the Garrifon 

that 

1 . 



of Louisbourg. 47 

chat eould be brought to bear on that Part of thej^ 
Harbour. 

After endeavouring in vain to tow off he Pru~ 
dent, they found me was on ground, with feveral 
Feet Water in her Hold. There now remained 
nothing in their Power to do, to prevent her be- 
ing recovered by the Enemy, but to fet her on 
Fire — which they did with all poffible Expedi- 
tion, leaving along fide her a large Schooner, and 
her own Boats , for her People to efcape in to the 
Shore, which was at no great Diftance from her. 
On board of this Ship they found a De/erter from 
our Camp, who was killed in the little Buftle at 
our People's taking Poffeffion of her, and by 
that Means refcued from the ignominious Exe- 
cution of military Juftice, 

The Boats from Le Prudent now joined the 
others about Le Bienfaifant, and helped to tow 
her off triumphantly in the midft of a formida- 
ble Fire from the mortified Enemy; which they 
did with great Speed by the Aftiftance of a little 
Breeze, and what ragged Sails, Yards and Rigg- - 
ing fhe had left of any Service after the conftant 
Fire fhe had fo long received from our Batteries. 
When they had thus got her out of the Diftance 
and Direction of the Enemy's Guns, they fecured 
her till the next Day by an Hawfer in the N. E. 
Harbour, and enjoyed on board her the firft 
joyful Moment's Leifure of fecurely congratu- 
lating each other on their Succefs and Safety in 
this hazardous Enterprize. 

The taking of thefe two Ships by our Fleet's 
Boats on this memorable Occafion, as it muft be 
a lafting, indelible Honour to the Vigilance and 
A&ivity of thofe who projected, and to the 
G 2 Bravery 



48 The Reduction 

July. Bravery and Conduct of thofe who executed, the 
bold Defign will alfo be a new, and perhaps a 
Jeajonable Conviction to the whole World, that, 
however arduous, however apparently-impractica- 
ble any purpofed naval Attempt may be, the 
Englijh Seamen are not to be deterred from it by 
any Profpect of Difficulty or Danger, but will 
exert themfelves as far as Men can do, and at 
leaft deferve Succefs, when led on to it by fuch 
as are worthy to command them. 

Whether it may be ufeful, is not fo certain as, 
that it is jujl, to obferve in this Place, that at 
the Time of this naval Ajjault, their was neither 
Captain or Lieutenant on board either of thefe 
Ships, but an Enfign only in each left with the 

Command: That their Decks were ftrewed 

about a Foot high with Tobacco Leaves, and large 
Pieces of Junk, as a Precaution to leflbn the 
violent Effects of our /mailer Shells that might 

accidentally alight in them : And, that all their 

Sides within, were nailed over with thick Nett- 
ings, to prevent fome of the Mifchiefs from Splin- 
ters occafioned by Shot through their Sides. They 
had much greater Experience of the real Ufe of 
the latter Expedient, than of the former, during 
the Courfe of this Siege : For, you have feldom 
feen Ships more mattered with Shot-holes, efpe- 
cially on one fide, with their Mafts ftanding, than 
thefe two were, at the time they fell into our 

Poffeffion Shells indeed none of the Ships 

received many of; and what happened to hie 
them, were none of the largeft Sort, and but by 
Accident could have done them the Mifchiefs 
they fuffered. 

26. Capt, 



of Louisbourg. 49 

26. Capt. Laforey's intrepid Conduct in the July,. 
heroic Action of latt Night was very juftly re- 
warded with Poji in UEcbo Frigate of 32 Guns, 
taken from the Enemy on the 19th of June laft, 
as he was unfortunately obliged to let his own 
fine Capture Le Prudent on Fire, otherwife it is 
not doubted, that he would have been diftin- 

guifhed with the Command of that Ship as 

Capt. Balfour's was with that of Le Bienfaifant^ 
which was immediately repaired with all Dili- 
gence, to be fent to England. 

About low Water this Day Le Bienfaifant was 
on ground, at the Place where fhe was fecured in 
the dark of the Morning, upon afoft Mud: And, 
ibon after fhe began to heel> her Main, Mizen and 
Fore-topmafts had been fo much wounded by 
the Shot from our Batteries, that they went over 
her Side, leaving her the horrid Appearance of a 
wrecked, as well as a conquered, Ship. Indeed, 
when our Ships came into the Harbour, there 
was hardly any Part of ir, which had not the 
Appearance of Diftrefs and Defolation, and pre- 
fented to our View frequent Pieces of Wrecks 
and Remnants of Deftruction — Five or fix Ships 
funk in one place with their Maft-Heads peeping 
out of the Water— the ftranded Hull of Le Pru- 
dent on the muddy Shoal of the other fide, burned 
down to the Water's Edge, with a great deal of 
her Iron and Guns daring us in the Face — Buoys 
of flipped Anchors bobbing very thick upon the 
Surface of the Water in the Channel towards the 

Town a Number of fmall Craft and Boats 

towards that Shore, fome intirely under Water, 
others with part of their Mails Handing out of 
it \ befides the ftranded Hulls, Irons and Guns 

of 



50 The Reduction 

Ju/j.of the three Ships burned on the 21 ft, upon the 

Mud towards the Barrafoy and in the N. E. 

Harbour little elfe to be feen but Mails, Yards 
and Rigging floating up and down, and Pieces of 
burned Mafts, Bowfprits &c. driven to the Wa- 
ters Edge, and fome Parts of the Shore edged 
with the T obaccs Leaves out of fome of the Ships 

that had been deftroyed the whole a difmal 

Scene of total Deftruction ! 

This Day as the Fire of the Bejiegers was ra- 
ther brijker than ufual, that from the Garrifon 

was but v ery faint and that dijcontinued about 

10 o'Clock in the Morning 5 when an Officer 
with a Flag of Truce was lent out to General 
Amherft, to defire Terms of Capitulation. 

It was Mr. Bofcawen's conftant Method from 
the very fir ft Forenoon of landing the Troops 
in the Ifland of Cape Bret on , to go on Shore 
himfelf fome part of the Day, and fometimes 
twice every Day, if the Bufinefs of the Fleet, 
and the violent Surff on the Shore' would permit 
him, into the Grand Camp : And, as on thefe 
Accounts his going himfelf was fometimes uncer- 
tain, he had at lead one of his Officers every Day 
on Shore continually attending on General Am- 
herft, fometimes to carry Difpatches to him, and 
always to bring Intelligence from him of the whole 
Proceedings and Operations of the Siege. 

The Admiral was this Day arrived at the Head- 
quarters, but a few Minutes before the Officer 
came from the Garrifon to the General, and con- 
certed with him the Nature of the formal Sum- 
mons, to be fent into the Governor of Louisbourg, 
to furrender the Garrifon. The Admiral had 
brought along with him fomewhat of this Kind 

ready 



Of LoUISfcOtJRG.C^ ^ 51 

ready drawn up in Englifh in the Form of a Let-j 
ter-, the Contents of which were communicated 
to the French Officer. The only "Term of Capi- 
tulation^ which was delivered to him, was con- 
ceived in very few Words, to this Effect, that 
the Garrifon mud expect no other Terms, but to 
furrender at Difcretion ? There were two Hours 
time allowed the Governor for Deliberation. — 

About the Expiration of the Time limited, 
there came another Officer from the Governor , 
with Remonftrances againft the Hardfhip and 
Severity of this, importuning fome other more 
favourable Conditions. After fome little Confu- 
tation between the Admiral and General^ they 
concluded upon this Condefcenfion, that the Ex- 
prefTion at Difcretion, mould be foftened into* 
Prifoners of War — And, their generous Huma- 
nity added, c That the Women and Children, 
and fuch of the Inhabitants of Louijbourg, as 
had not borne Arms, mould be fent into France^ 
in the Ships of his Britannic Majefty.'* The Officer 
was affured, that no other Conditions whatever 
would be granted to the Garrifon, who mould be 
indulged an Hour longer for deliberating on thefe, 
bur muft expect no more Time to be given 
them. 

Before the Expiration of this, a Lieutenant- 
Colonel was fent out to the General Officer in our 
Tranches, to propofe that the Officers of the 
Garrifon, upon furrendering themfelves Prifoners 
of War^ might be permitted to go to France 
inftead of England upon their Parole given of 
not ferving for a Time to be fpecified by the 
General. — On finding this could not be obtained, 
he defired the Favour of one Hour more for far- 
ther 



52 7he Reduction 

Deliberation. — The Anfwer he received 
from Brigadier Gen. Whitmore, was to this Pur- 
pofe, ' Tnat He was not at Liberty to fufrer any- 
more Me Mages to be carried to the General and 

Commander in Chief but, that he would take it 

upon himfelf, to allow the Garrifon one quarter 
of an Hour more, which they muft^/ exceed on 
any Pretence-, as he would certainty begin to 
renew his Fire upon them, if he heard no more 
from ihz Governor, when that Time was expired.* 
When it was very near up, a Lieutenant -Colonel 
came running out of the Garrifon, making Signs 
at a Diftance, and bawling out as loud as he 
could, We accept — We accept- — He was followed 
by two others ; and they were ail conducted to 
General Amherft 9 s Head-Quarters. 

The Befiegers had this Morning completed 
fome other fbrong Batteries, which the Surrender 
of the Garrifon had timely prevented them from 
opening. There was already a very confiderable 
Breach made, in the Wall at the Weft Gate ; and 
the Works were fo very much battered and da- 
maged in feveral other Parts, that the Befiegers 
had meditated a Storm and Efcalade as this Nighr, 
or the following at farther!: — The Fleet was to 
have attacked the Garrifon from the fide of the 
Harbour ; while the Army afTaulted it from the 
Camp fide. The Befie'ged had already experi- 
enced the inflexible Bravery of both in two very 
aftonifhing, fuccefsful Enterprizes ; and no one 
can wonder, if they were now too much terrified 
to hazard the Succefs of a third to their united, 
exaiperated Efforts ; the dreadful Confequence of 
which with too much Probability to be appre- 
hended, would be the Extirpation of the whole 

Garrifon, 



of Louisbourg. 53 

Garrifon, and all the Inhabitants of the Town — ; 
Wifely to prevent this, they furrendered on the 
following 

Articles of Capitulation 

Between their Excellencies Admiral Bofcawen 
and Major General Am her ft, and his Excel- 
lency the Chevalier de Drucour Governor of 
the IJland of C&pe Breton, of Louilhourg and 
of the Ijland of St. John, and their Appur- 
tenances. 

I. FT\ H A T the Garrifon of Louijhourg mall be 
JL Prifoners of tVar, and fhall be carried to 
England in the Ships of his Britannic Majefty. 

II. All the Artillery, Ammunition, Provifions, 
as well as the Arms of every Kind whatfoever, 
which are at prelent in the Town of Louijbourg y 
the Iflands of Cape Bret on y and St. John's, and 
their Appurtenances, fhall be delivered, without 
the lead Damage, to fuch Commiffaries as mail be 
appointed to receive them, for the Ufe of his Bri- 
tannic Majefty. 

III. The Governor (ball give his Orders, that 
the Troops which are in the lfland of St. John and 
its Appurtenances, mail go on board fuch Ship of 
War as the Admiral fhall fend to receive them. 

IV. The Gate called Porte Dauphine mall be 
given up to the Troops of his Britannic Majefty 
to-morrow at eight o'Clock in the Morning, 
and the Garrifon, including all thofe that carried 
Arms, drawn up at Noon on the Efplanade, where 
they (hall Jay down their Arms, Colours, Imple- 
ments and Ornaments of War. And, the Garrifon 

H > fhall 



54 TZtf ReduSlion 

mall go on board, in order to be carried to Eng- 
land in a convenient Time. 

V. The fame Care fliali be taken of the Sick 
and Wounded that are in the Hofpitals, as of thofe 
belonging to his Britannic Majefty. 

VI. The Merchants and their Clerks that have 
not carried Arms, mail be fent to France^ in fuch 
Manner as the Admiral (hall think proper. 

(Signed) 

Camp before Louifbourg. Edward Bofcawen. 

26th July 1758. Jeffery Amherft. 

The Counter part of thefe Articles was tranflated 
into the French Language on the Fart of the Gover- 
nor, and 

Dated at Louifbourg Signed 
the 26th of July, 1758. Le Chevalier de Drucour. 

After the Capitulation was figned, the General 
detained a Lieutenant -Colonel of the Garrifon as an 
Hoftage for the Articles being fulfilled on the Part 
of the Governor, until 8 o'Clock in the Morning 
of the 

1# 27. When Major Farquhar with three Compa- 
nies of Grenadiers took Pofleffion of Forte Dan- 
fhine. And, at Noon Brigadier- General Whitmore 
received in Form the Surrender of the Garrifon on 
the Efplanade, directed their Arms and Colours to 
be carried out of the Town, polled the necefTary 
Guards and Centinels over the Stores, Magazines, 
&c. in, the Town, and afterwards continued in the 
Garrifon, and acted as Governor of Louijbourg* 

It would be a great Omiffion not to acquaint you 
that all the Officers and Men on this Expedition 
received from their General a public Teftimony of 
his Approbation of their gallant Behaviour^ which 



of Louisbourg, 55 

he affured them Ihould be faithfully reported to 
their Royal Matter. 

It may be fatisfactory to you, to receive the 
Return of the Killed and IVounded at the landing 
of the Troops on 8 th June. 



Of the Army, 



Killed 


c 

ni 

a, 
is 
J 


Subalterns 


Serjeants 


| Corporal | 


Private 


Wounded 


[Subalterns 


| Serjeants 


| Corporal 


Oh 


| Miffing 


Total 




3 


4 


i 


4* 


Total 


5 


2 


i 







0/ /& Navy. 



Killed 


Seamen 


Died 
of 
wounds 


Wounded 


Lieute- 
nants. 


Mates 

or 
Midfli. 


Sea- 
men* 


Total 








Total 









Of the Transports. 



[ Killed 


Mates 


Men 


Wounded 


Mates 


Men 


I Total 






Total 







N, B. Boats of the Men of War and Tranfports 
fwampe4 and ftove, about 130. 

What Forms you fee not filled up, are left for you 
to fupply, when there is fuller Intelligence, Thofe 
you lee already filled up, you may depend on, as 
far as can be done on the Accuracy of T ranfcribers* 



A 



5* 



The Reduction 



A Return of the Killed and Wounded of the Fleets 
cn the 2$th of July, in taking the Ships in the 
Harbour. 



Killed 


Mates 

or 
Midfli. 


Men 


Wounded 


Mates 

or 
Midfh. 


Men 












Total 


i 6 


Total 




9 



A Return of the Killed and Wounded of the Troops 
between the Day of Landings and the Surrender 
of Louifbourg, 



The 


Commif. 
Officers. 


Non-co. 
Officers 


and 


The 


Commif. 
Officers 


Non-co. 
Officers 


and 


































Killed 


Captains 


Lieutents 


Enfigns 


4-1 

a 

O 

<u 

"E? 
a> 


Corporal 


Drums 


[Private 


wound- 
ed. 


Captains 


Lieutents 


Enfigns 


Serjeants 


Corporals 


Drums 


Private 


Total 




2 


3 


7 




146 


Total 


4 


10 


3 


4 


3 


2 


315 



Of the Artillery. 



j Silled 


Gunner 


Macro/Fes J | Wounded 


Corporal 


Gunn. 


Matrof. 


J Total 


1 


3 II Total 


1 




5 



This Return was tranfcribed by myfelf from an au- 
thentic Copy at large, as was alfo 



The 



of Louisbourg. 57 

The State of the Garrifon of Louifbourg on the 
Bay it war far rendered. 



Names of the Regiments, and Num- 
bers of the Garrifon. 


Offi- 
cers, 


Soldi- 


Sick 


Total 


ers fit 
for 

Duty. 


arid 
woun- 
ded. 


of each 
Regi- 
ment. 


24 Companies of Marines of the ) 
ufual Garrifon, and 2 Companies s 
of the Artillery -— 3 

Second Battal. of Volont aires Etr angers 
D° Cambife 
J)° Artois 
D° Bcurgogne 


76 

38 
38 

3 2 
3 


746 

402 

466 
407 
353 


Ws 

86 
104 

27 
3 ! 


IOI7 

526 
608 
466 
4H 

3°3* 
2606 


Total of the Garrifon 
Sea Officers and Seamen 


214 


2 374 
1 1 24 


443 
1347 


Total Prifoners of War ( 349 


349* 


1790 


5637 



Authentic Accounts make the Number of their Killed, 2400 at 
the leaft. 

The Artillery, Ammunition and warlike Stores found 
in the Garrifon and its Batteries. 



|Muflcets with Accou- 
trements 
Barrels of Powder 
Mufket Cartridges 
Mufket Balls in Tons 



7600 

600 
8000 
*3 



CANNON. 
French 36 Pounders, 



N°. 
Iron 38 



Cafe Shot. 
For 24 pounders - 
[Double headed Shot 
■ For 24 Pounders 
1 2 - 





24 - - - 


97" 




18 - - - 


33 




12- 


?9 




8 - - - 


10 




6 - - - 


28 




4 - ' - 


6 




Total N'. 


231 




SHOT. 




For 


36 Pounders 


1607 




24 - - - 


1658 




12 - - 


4006 




6 - - - 


2^36 




GRAPE-SHO I . 




For 


36 Pounders 


139 




24 - - - 


\H 




12 - - - 


33° 




f3 - - - 


136 



N°. 
53 

345 



MORTAR 6 with Beds, 
Brafs Inches 1 z\ Diaim. 

9 - - - 
61 - - - 



Inches 12- Diameter 



3 

Iron 
6 

4 
1 



1 otal N°. 


18 


SHELLS. 




inches 13 Diameter 


805 


10 - 


38 


8 - - • 


■ 158 


6 - - - 


, 27 


Total N°. 


1028 



COLOURS 



58 The Reduction 

An Account of the Ships in the Harbour of Louifc 
bourg, when the Jj roofs landed. 



Names 


Guns 


What became of them. 


Le Prudent 

L' Entreprennant 
Le Celebre 
Le Capricieux 

Le Bienfaifant 

T 1 A It 

L Apollon 

L' Echo 

*U Arethufe 
La Fidelle 


74 

74 

64 
64 

64 

44 

3 2 

36 
26 


Taken by Boats 25th July, and after- 
wards burned. 
Burned by a Shell 21ft July. 
The fame Fate 
The fame Fate. 

Taken by Boats 25th Ju/j, and com- 

miflioned. 
bunk in the Harbour. 
Taken by Sir Charles Hardy sSquadron 

1 8th and commiflioned. 
Made her Efcape in a Fog 15 th July, 
Sunk in the Harbour. 


Le Chevre 


22 


Sunk in the Harbour. 


Le Biche 


16 


Sunk in the Harbour. 


N. B. beiides 
La Dian 


3 2 


Taken by Sir Charles Hardy s Squa- 
dron 25 th April, and fold for the 
Benefit of the Captori. 



As you expect me to give you fome Account of 
the Place, as well as of the Siege ; the following is. 
the beft in my Power to fend you in this Hurry. 



The Town of Louifbourg 

LI E S on the S. W. fide of its Harbour, and 
confifts of feveral narrow, paltry, (linking 
Lanes they call Streets. There is hardly a tole- 
rable Houfe in it, befides thofe of the Governor and 
Intendant, that are built of Stone and Brick with- 
out any Elegance. The beft of all its Build- 
ings are, the Hofpital, Nunnery, and the Maga- 
zines.— Its fine Barracks built by the Englijh during 
the laft War, were all burned down by the Shells 
thrown into t hem during the Siege. Few of the 
other Houfes, which were much damaged by the 
Shot of the Befiegers, are more than a better Sort 
of boarded Cottages a Story high 5 in which one 
could not help obferving many Marks of the fhewy 

Beggary 



of Louisbourg. 59 

Beggary of their late Inhabitants -to fay nothing 

of the Dirt and Slovenlinefs of that nafiy fine People 
whom the Englijh ape with fo much Fondnefs, and 
fo little Tafte. 

The Fortifications 

Are as regular as the Situation would admit. 
Befides a good Rampart, with irregular Baftions 
and a Cavalier on one of them, it has a good dry 
Ditch, except towards the Baftion Dauphine, where 
there is Water. The Revetement of the Walls is. 
not capable of (landing any long Battering, for 
Want of a good Cement which is not to be made 
with Sea-fand, and a fcanty Allowance of Lime, 
The Covert-way and its Traverfes are pretty good, 
and the Glacis excellent: Before two of the Cur- 
tains there is a Ravelin with a Bridge to the Sally- 
forts. But, after all, the Thicknefs of its Walls, 
and the impaffable Morajjes from the Foot of its 
Glacis to a confiderable diftance, are what confti- 
tute the Strength of the Place more than the Regu- 
larity of its Works, or all the Pieces of Cannon 
that can be mounted on its Ramparts. 

The Siege 

Of this Place had nothing more remarkable in it, 
than the following Circumftances — The Englijh 
Forces landed in a Place, where it was but barely 
pojfible, tho' hardly credible without fuch a fuccefsful 
Conviction, for an Handful of Men, at the Time 
defencelefs and expofed, to fucceed in the Face of 
Numbers, fo advantageoufly fituated, and fo im- 

pregnably fortified. -The ft r ict Union, conftant 

Harmony, and mutual good Inclination that fub- 
fifted between the Fleet and Army in this Expedi- 
tion, were inforced both by the Orders and Exam- 
ples of the Commanders in Chief, and punctually 
obferved by all their fubordinate Officers. As this 
good Underftanding contributed fo much to their 

mutual 



6o 7 'he Redu6iion 

mutual Happinefs, as well as to the Succefs of their 
united Efforts, in this joint Enterprize, it will 
always be remembered to their Honour, as almoft 
the only Inftance of fuch Unanimity for a long Time 
between a Fleet and an Army fent to act in Con- 
junction, upon Service of whatever Importance to* 

the Public. The well projected Defign no lefs 

happily executed of furprizing and Seizing in their 
very ftrong Harbour two capital Ships of the French, 
by the Secrecy, Suddennefs and Vigour of the 
Coup de Main of the Boats of the Englijh Fleet ; 
which will defervedly make a memorable Article 

in the Annals of Europe for the Year 1758. 

And, the very inconfiderabie Number of Men the 
Siege of Louijbourg coir the Englijh ; which was 
much fhort of what might reafonably have been 
expected in the fingle Attempt of Landing, where 
the French had fuch fortified Lines, manned with 
fuch powerful Numbers. 

The Conquefl of Louifbourg 
Is faid to be peculiarly remarkable for this one 
Observation- — That the Humanity and Generofity 
of our Commanders in Chief towards its Garrifon 
and Inhabitant*^ had more the Appearance of trans- 
planting an Englijh Colony, than the Behaviour of 
difpoflefling a ftench Settlement : And you would 
have believed the Indulgences granted to all of them, 
to have been Shewn toward Friends, had you not 
been allured they v/ere conferred upon Prifoners. 

Wherever Succefs and Victory may hereafter de- 
cide in Favour of any French Commanders it is to 
be hoped, they will always remember the generous 
Treatment all their People received from the Con- 
querors of Lduijhourg.- It is not to be doubted, 

that the who:? World will admire the Superior 
Greatnefs of the Englijh Commanders, in fo loon 
forgetting the barbarous Ufage of both their Officers 
and Men by the Ravagers of Fort Willi 'am- Henry. 
FINIS. 



/ 



r